The next most affected group are aquatic invertebrates such as freshwater snails and water fleas which are exposed via water and potentially plants, are vulnerable to low and acute exposure and which can be affected at the individual, population and community levels.

The moderate to high water solubility of neonicotinoids enables them to contaminate both surface and groundwater and hence leach into waterways, where high concentrations have depleted aquatic insect abundance and diversity.

The impacts identified on this group are reduced feeding behaviour, impaired growth and mobility.